The complete description of the performance of Salat
consists of either, two, three or four Rak'ats, and a Rak'at is performed
1. Stand erect, facing the direction of Ka'ba in Mecca, and after having the Niyyat, i.e., the intention in mind of what prayer you are about to offer and preferably utter it to yourself.
2. Raise both your hands up to the ears and, say "Allahu Akbar," bring them down and place the right hand upon the left below the navel.
3. Now recite the following
(a) Subhanak-Alla-humma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka
Meaning : All Glory to be Thee, O Allah ! and Praise be to Thee : blessed is Thy Name and exalted Thy Majesty ; and there is none worthy of worship besides Thee.'
(b) A'oozu billahi minashaitanir-rajeem
Meaning : " I betake myself to Allah for refuge from the accursed Satan."
Meaning : "I (begin) in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful."
(d) Now recite the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qur'an (The Sura-e-Fateha), viz.,
Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil-'aalameen ar-Rahman-ir-Rahim, Maliki Yaum-id-Deen, iyyak na'-budu wa iyyaka nasta'een : ihdinas-siratal mustaqeema sirat-alla-zeena an 'amta 'alaihim ghairil maghdoobi 'alaihim wal-lad-daleen. Ameen !
Meaning : 'All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, the Beneficent , the Merciful, Owner of the Day of Judgment . Thee alone we worship and Thee alone we ask for help. Show us the straight path, the path of those whom Thou hast favored, not (the path of) those who earn Thine anger nor (of) those who go astray. Ameen ! '
(e) Now immediately follow up this by reciting some passage from the Holy Qur'an, which would not consist of less than three consecutive verses. For this purpose any one of the small chapters may be selected, as for instance, the chapter termed "The Unity" viz, :
Qul huw-Allahu Ahad, Allahus-Samad, lam yalid wa lam yoolad, wa lam yakun lahoo kufuwan ahad.
Meaning : ' Say : He is Allah, the One, -Allah, the eternally besought of all ! He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable un to Him.'
Note : If a small chapter be recited, it is preferable to precede it by : "Bismillah-i-Rahman-ir-Raheem."
(f) Now say "Allahu Akbar," I bow down in Ruku and say thrice :
Meaning : ' How glorious is my Lord, the Great !'
(g) Now again assume the standing posture let your hands remain on the sides and
Sami' Allahu liman hamidah
Meaning : 'Allah has listened to him who has praised him : Our Lord praise to be Thee.'
(h) Now say "Allahu
Akbar" and prostrate yourself and perform the Sajdah, say thrice :
Meaning : 'All glory be to my Lord, the Most High.'
(i) Now recite yourself
and sit for a while in a reverential posture, known as Jalsah, and say for one time '
Meaning : 'O Allah ! forgive me and have mercy upon me
(j) Now perform the second Sajdah exactly in the same manner as the first one
After compliting above mentioned sequence of steps you have completed One Rak 'at. Now say : "Allahu Akbar" , and, stand erect once again, repeat all that you had done in the performance of the first Rak'at with the exception of items (a) and (b) , which are meant to be recited in the first Rak'at only.
(k) After the second Rak'ats second Sajdah is over, say "Allahu Akbar," sit down in the reverential posture called, Qa'-i-da- tul -Oola (first sitting) or Qa'-i-da-tul-Akhira (last sitting) as the case may be , and recite Tashhhud alone in the former case, viz, :
At-tahiyatu lillahi wassalawatu wat-taiyyabatu assalmu 'alaika ayyu-hannabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu assalmu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillah-is-saliheen, ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhoo wa rasooluh.
Meaning : 'All reverence, all worship, all sanctity are due to Allah. Peace be on you O Prophet ! and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings . Peace be on us and all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness to the fact that none is deserving of worship except Allah and I bear witness to the fact that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle.'
(l) If more than two Rak'ats are to be performed, stand up again saying "Allahu Akbar", and complete one or two Rak'ats as the case may be , sit down in the reverential posture called "Qa'da-tu-Akhira ,which is also obviously adopted if the prayer consists of two Rak'ats only. In the reverential posture, now recite in addition to tashhhud, the Salwat (Durud Sharif). viz.,
Allahumma salli 'ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa 'ala ali sayyidina Muhammadin kama sallaita 'ala sayyidina Ibrahima wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahima innaka Hamidun Majeed.
Allahumma barik 'ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa 'ala ali sayyidina Muhammadin kama barakta 'ala sayyidina Ibrahima wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahima innaka Hamidun Majeed.
Meaning: "O Allah ! Shower Thy blessings on our leader and his descendents as Thou showerdest Thy blessings on our leader Abraham (Ibrahim A.S.) and his descendents ; verily, Thou art the Praise-worthy, the Glorious.
Meaning : " O Allah ! bless our leader Muhammad and his descendents as Thou blessedest our leader Ibrahim and his descendents ; varily, Thou art the Praise-worthy, the Glorious."
(m) Now recite the following du'a
Allahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman kaseeran wa la yaghfiruz-zunooba ill anta faghfirli maghfiratan min indika war-hamni, innaka antal-Ghafoor-ur-Raheemm
Meaning : "O Allah ! I have been extremely unjust to myself and none grants forgiveness against sins out Thou ; therefore forgive me Thou and have mercy upon me. Verily, Thou art the Forgiver, the Merciful."
(n) Now turn your face to the right and say (Salam)
Assalau 'alaikum wa rahmatullah, i.e., "Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah'. Then turn your face to the left and repeat the same.
If a worshipper omits any of the essentials of Salat or suspects that he or she has performed more than the required number of Ruku's , Sajdahs, or Rak'ats etc. he or she should perform on Salam after reciting Tashahhud and, making Sajdahs, should again recite Tashahhud, Salwat and Du'a and complete the Salat with the usual tow Salams. This is called Sajdatus-Sahw .
Acts which nullify a Salat
1. Talking during Salat
2. Doing any three acts in succession
3. Emission of impure matter from the body or the annulment of Wudu in any way.
4. Drinking or eating during Salat
5. turning the chest away from the direction Ka'ba.
6. Committing breach of any of the obligatory factors of Salat
7. If the body between the navel and the knees becomes uncovered in the case of males, or any part of the body excepting the hands and the face in the case of females (this part of body is called Shatar).
The reverential sitting posture that one adopts after the completion of the two Rak'ats of a Salat, consisting of three or four, for reciting Tashahhud is called Qa'datul-Oola .
The final reverential sitting posture which a worshipper assumes after the completion of the prescribed number of Rak'ats of any particular prayer, for the recitation of Tashahhud, Salwat and Du'a is called Qa'datul-Akhira .